Методические рекомендации для (практических, семинарских, лабораторных) занятий Тема: Физиология нервной системы: нервные клетки головного мозга


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Ф КГМУ 4/3-06/02

ИП №6 от 14 июня 2007 г.
Карагандинский государственный медицинский университет

Кафедра иностранных языков

Методические рекомендации для (практических, семинарских, лабораторных) занятий
Тема: Физиология нервной системы: нервные клетки головного мозга

Past Perfect Active Voice

Дисциплина Иностранный язык

Специальность: 5В110200– «Общественное здравоохранение»

Курс: I, уровень А

Составитель: Жереб


Караганда 2013
Обсуждены и утверждены

на заседании кафедры иностранных языков

Протокол № 11 от 28.06.13г.

зав. кафедрой _______ Бурмистрова В.А.

Тема: Физиология нервной системы: нервные клетки головного мозга

Past Perfect Active Voice

Цель: Овладение лексико-грамматическим материалом темы.

Задачи обучения:

  1. Овладеть лексическим минимумом по теме: Физиология нервной системы: нервные клетки головного мозга

  2. Научить студентов употреблять новые слова в устной и письменной речи

3. Грамматика. Past Perfect Active Voice

4. Научить студентов употреблять грамматические формы в устной и письменной речи

Основные вопросы темы:

1. Работа с грамматикой:

- введение грамматического материала Past Perfect Active Voice

- активизация грамматического материала

- выполнение подстановочных упражнений

- выполнение трансформационных упражнений

- применение грамматического материала в устной речи

2.Работа над лексикой:

- введение лексического материала с применением дефиниций

- активизация лексического материала на тексте

- синонимы

- антонимы

- подстановочные упражнения

3. Работа с текстом:

- обучению чтению

- упражнения на опознавание и дифференциацию грамматический явлений

- упражнения для формирования навыков работы с двуязычным словарем

- составление вопросов и плана к тексту

- упражнения для обучения интерпретации текста

- упражнения на контроль понимания основного содержания прочитанного текста

^ Методы обучения и преподавания

- командная работа

- индивидуальная работа

- дискуссия по теме

- работа в парах
Литература:

  1. Волмянская О.А. Профессиональный английский язык для студентов-медиков, Мн.: выш. Шк., 1984г.-180с.

  2. Маслова А.М. Учебник английского языка для медицинских вузов. 2-е изд. Испр. Доп. М.: Высш.шк., 1983г.-352с.

  3. Экерсли К.Э. Учебник английского языка.-Харьков,1992г.-250с.

  4. Бушина Л.М. и др. Учебник немецкого языка медвузов. 1984

  5. Бондарь С.Н. и др. Учебник немецкого языка для медвузов. 1977

  6. Бондарь С.Н. и др. Пособие по немецкому языку для медвузов. 1977 на английском языке


Контроль: Выполнение лексико-грамматического теста.

  1. Read and translate the new words:

1. cortex

2. inhibition

3. stimuli

4. extend

5. significance

6. investigations

7. respiratory

8. sound sleep

9. decrease

10. protective

  1. Read and translate the text:

Nervous cells of the brain.

The nervous cells of the cortex are the most delicate of all the cells of the human body.

It is at the moment of tiredness of the cortical nervous cells that the process of inhibition begins to act. This process does not allow new stimuli to pass to the tired areas of the brain. To provide the smooth work of the brain the nervous cells must be well supplied with oxygen and feeding substances. And for this purpose any human being must have regular complete rest, i.e. sleep.

When the process of inhibition extends over a great number of cells, spreads widely over the cortex and even over the subcortical areas of the brain one falls asleep.

When one sleeps the vital activity of the nervous system is restored. So sleep is of a great protective significance to the human being.

The man sleeps about one third of his life. Numerous investigations and experiments show that sleep is more necessary for the human being than food. One can live longer without food than without sleep.

During a sound quite sleep the whole activity of the human organism changes, the body metabolism decreases, the respiratory and pulse rate become slower, the body temperature drops. Though the stimuli continue to come into the brain, the inhibited cortical cells do not react to them.
III. Answer the questions

  1. When does the process of inhibition begin to act?

  2. What must the nervous cells be well supplied with to provide the smooth work of the brain?

  3. What happens when the process of inhibition extends over a great number of cells?

  4. What happens when one sleeps?

  5. What part of our life do we sleep?

  6. What is more necessary for the human being?

  7. Do the inhibited cortical cells react to the stimuli when we sleep?


IV. Say True or False.

  1. The man sleeps about two third of his life.

  2. One can live longer without sleep than without food.

  3. Sleep is of a great protective significance to the human being.

  4. During a sound quite sleep the whole activity of the human organism changes.

  5. The stimuli continue to come into the brain and the inhibited cortical cells react to them.


Task V. Insert the missing words.



  1. The nervous cells of the ……. are the most delicate of all the cells of the human body.

  2. The process of ……does not allow new stimuli to pass to the tired areas of the brain.

  3. To provide the smooth work of the brain any human being must have regular complete rest, i.e. …….. .

  4. When one sleeps the vital activity of the nervous system is ……. .

  5. Numerous ……… and experiments show that sleep is more necessary for the human being than food.

  6. Though the stimuli continue to come into the brain, the inhibited cortical cells do not ……. to them.

  7. So sleep is of a great protective significance to the human being.

Task VI. Grammar exercise. Open the brackets using Past Perfect Active Voice


  1. The scientist_______ (to prove) that the nervous cells of the cortex are the most delicate of all the cells of the human body.

  2. The researchers _______ (to find out) the significance of the sleep.

  3. The physiologists ________ (to estimate) the importance of human being.

  4. They ______(to publish) the book on regeneration of nervous system by the end of last year.

  5. The doctor ______ (not to discharge) the patient from the clinic by the last week.

6. _____ he (to write)_______ the article on the theme “Brain” by two o’clock yesterday.

7. Professor Ivanov _______(to deliver) the lecture by 5 o’clock yesterday.

VII. Retail the text.

VIII. Revision Test.

1. Give the definition to the word: inhibition

  1. restraining of the function of an organ or an agent 

  2. the outer or superficial part of an organ or body structure 

  3. a fixed ratio between two things

  4. having or showing very polished and worldly manners 

  5. a usually fixed or ordered series of actions or events 

2. Give the definition to the word: cortex

  1. a fixed ratio between two things

  2. restraining of the function of an organ or an agent 

  3. the outer or superficial part of an organ or body structure 

  4. having or showing very polished and worldly manners 

  5. a usually fixed or ordered series of actions or events 

3. Give the definition to the word: metabolism

  1. the outer or superficial part of an organ or body structure 

  2. the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material is assimilated 

  3. restraining of the function of an organ or an agent 

  4. a fixed ratio between two things

  5. having or showing very polished and worldly manners 

4. Give the synonym to the word: purpose

  1. cell

  2. cortex

  3. significance

  4. brain

  5. aim

5. Give the synonym to the word: investigation

  1. cell

  2. brain

  3. aim

  4. exploration

  5. experiment

6. Give the definition to the word: rate

  1. restraining of the function of an organ or an agent 

  2. the outer or superficial part of an organ or body structure 

  3. a fixed ratio between two things

  4. having or showing very polished and worldly manners 

  5. a usually fixed or ordered series of actions or events 

7. Give the synonym to the word: occur

A). meet

B). find

C). get

D). happen

E). divide

8. Give the synonym to the word: symptom

A).type

B). kind

C).sign

D).nature

E).ache

9. Find the synonym to the following word: pain

  1. complication

  2. smell

  3. feeling

  4. vision

  5. ache

10. Find the synonym to the following word: To order

  1. to command

  2. to finish

  3. to allow

  4. to proclaim

  5. to move

11. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The scientists are performing an experiment now.

  2. The physician was prescribing remedies.

  3. The scientists had published the new findings by the end of last month.

  4. The new findings were published last year.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

12. When does the process of inhibition begin to act?

  1. at the moment of tiredness of the cortical nervous cells

  2. at the moment of work of the cortical nervous cells

  3. always

  4. seldom

  5. in most cases

13. Find the synonym to the following word: smooth

  1. human

  2. nervous

  3. busy

  4. effortless

  5. regular

14. Find the synonym to the following word: spread

  1. develop

  2. extend

  3. become

  4. regulate

  5. control

15. What must the nervous cells be well supplied with to provide the smooth work of the brain?

  1. strength

  2. salts

  3. fluid tissue

  4. with oxygen and feeding substances

  5. stimuli

16. Put in the correct preposition:

to be discharged ……. the hospital

  1. on

  2. from

  3. into

  4. to

  5. with

17. Put in the correct preposition:

the period …… rest

  1. of

  2. from

  3. into

  4. to

  5. on

18. What happens when the process of inhibition extends over a great number of cells?

  1. one began to breath

  2. one began to eat

  3. one falls asleep

  4. one began to move

  5. one began to fight

19. What happens when one sleeps?

  1. vital activity of the nervous system is restored

  2. vital activity of the nervous system is reduced

  3. vital activity of the nervous system is controlled

  4. vital activity of the nervous system is planed

  5. vital activity of the nervous system is counted

20. What part of our life do we sleep?

  1. one eighth

  2. one seventh

  3. one tenth

  4. one fifth

  5. one third

21. What is more necessary for the human being?

  1. pleasure

  2. entertainment

  3. food

  4. sleep

  5. carbon dioxide

22. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The scientists had performed an experiment by 5 o’clock yesterday.

  2. The physician was prescribing remedies.

  3. The scientists published the new findings yesterday.

  4. The new findings were published last year.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

23. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The scientists performs an experiment.

  2. The physician had prescribed remedies by that time yesterday.

  3. The scientists published the new findings yesterday.

  4. The new findings were published last year.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

24. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. One can live longer without food than without sleep.

  2. The physician had studied the nervous cells of the cortex.

  3. The scientists published the new findings yesterday.

  4. All experiments were carried out.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

25. Give the synonym to the word: main

  1. clever

  2. expensive

  3. warm

  4. generous

  5. basic

26. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  2. The researchers find out the origin of this desease.

  3. The scientists have introduced this term.

  4. The scientist had proved that the nervous cells of the cortex are the most delicate of all the cells of the human body.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

27. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  2. The researchers find out the origin of this disease.

  3. The scientists have introduced this term.

  4. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

  5. The researchers had found out the significance of the sleep.

28. Give the synonym to the following word: shape

  1. space

  2. form

  3. bone

  4. nose

  5. vein

29. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  2. The physiologists had estimated the importance of human being.

  3. The researchers find out the origin of this disease.

  4. The scientists have introduced this term.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

30. Find the synonym to the word: «physician»

  1. nurse

  2. professor

  3. teacher

  4. doctor

  5. examiner

31. Find the synonym to the word: «local»

  1. natural

  2. district

  3. exact

  4. correct

  5. national

32. Find the synonym to the word: «findings»

  1. expressions

  2. solutions

  3. results

  4. problems

  5. tasks

33. Find the synonym to the word: «acute»

  1. sharp

  2. slight

  3. painful

  4. painless

  5. large

34. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. They had published the book on regeneration of nervous system by the end of last year.

  2. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  3. The researchers find out the origin of this disease.

  4. The scientists have introduced this term.

  5. The new scientific article will be written by him tomorrow.

35.Find the synonym to the word: «administer»

  1. admit

  2. receive

  3. prescribe

  4. get

  5. send

36. Find the synonym to the word: «condition»

  1. population

  2. nation

  3. station

  4. translation

  5. state

37. Find the antonym to the word: «hospital»

  1. inpatient department

  2. branch

  3. department

  4. section

  5. polyclinic

38. Find the antonym to the word: «dry»

  1. light

  2. mild

  3. severe

  4. moist

  5. profound

39. Find the antonym to the word: «rapid»

  1. quick

  2. slow

  3. short

  4. long

  5. nice

40. Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  2. The researchers find out the origin of this disease.

  3. The scientists have introduced this term.

  4. The doctor had not discharged the patient from the clinic by the last week.

  5. So sleep is of a great protective significance to the human being.

41.Find the antonym to the word: «painful»

  1. healthy

  2. painless

  3. useful

  4. useless

  5. restful

42.Find the antonym to the word: «admit»

  1. enter

  2. return

  3. come

  4. discharge

  5. look

43.Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  2. The researchers find out the origin of this disease.

  3. The scientists have introduced this term.

  4. The doctor discharges the patient from the clinic.

  5. He had written the article on the theme “Brain” by two o’clock yesterday.

44.Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active:

  1. The human heart makes 60-80 contractions per minute.

  2. Professor Ivanov had delivered the lecture by 5 o’clock yesterday.

  3. The researchers find out the origin of this disease.

  4. The scientists have introduced this term.

  5. The doctor discharges the patient from the clinic.

45.Find the adjective

  1. sufficiency

  2. sufficiently

  3. sufficient

  4. insufficiently

  5. insult

46.Find the noun

  1. locate

  2. localize

  3. local

  4. location

  5. locally

47.Find the verb

  1. to contract

  2. contraction

  3. contracting

  4. contracted

  5. contractual

48.Find the adverb

  1. obstruct

  2. obstructively

  3. obstruction

  4. obstructive

  5. obstructed

49.Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active

  1. They go to the laboratory every day

  2. Betty was met at the station

  3. The doctor was examining the patient at 8 o’clock yesterday

  4. Koch had made many experiments

  5. The scientist is known to discover this element

50.Find the sentence in Past Perfect Active

  1. Is he preparing Latin at Present?

  2. The nurses had given the injections to the patients

  3. The discovery is performed by him.

  4. Some new elements were known to them.

  5. Microbiology is a famous branch of science.

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